Although it was wonderful to see all that water tumbling down, it would be even more wonderful to see all that water tumbling up – Mark Twain on Niagara Falls
The Niagara Falls is on the Niagara River, forming the border between the province of Ontario (Canada) and the State of New York (USA). The falls are only at a distance of 17 miles (27 km) northwest of Buffalo (New York) and 75 miles (121 km) southeast of Toronto (Ontario), between the twin cities of Niagara Falls, Ontario, and Niagara Falls, New York.
The Niagara Falls has two major sections separated by the Goat Island. The Horseshoe Falls lie on the Canadian side and the American Falls are on the American side, which has also the smaller Bridal Veil Falls, which in fact is the third section of the Niagara Falls. Bridal Veil Falls is separated from the main falls by the Luna Island.
The Niagara Falls was formed when glaciers receded at the end of the Wisconsin glaciation during the last ice age. The swelling huge volume of water from the newly formed Great Lakes carved a path through the Niagara Escarpment to the Atlantic Ocean.
Though not so high, the Niagara Falls, the most powerful waterfall in North America, are very wide, draining down huge volumes of water (more than 6 million cubic feet/ 168,000 cubic meter) from over the crest line every minute during the peak seasons and an average of 4 million cubic feet/ 110,000 cubic meter) the year round.
Recently, the Niagara Falls were photographed by astronauts from the International Space Station, and it showed the twin cities around Niagara Falls in easy to see details, and it showed for spatial reference, the American falls at 328 m wide (1075 ft) and the Horseshoe Falls is 675 m wide (2200 ft).
The Niagara River forms the U.S.-Canadian Border. The river allows Lake Erie to drain into Lake Ontario, which is about 100 meters lower than Lake Erie.
The power of the huge amount of water, 750,000 U.S. gallons (2.8 million liters) per second, tumbling down the Niagara Falls is utilized to generate hydro-electric power by the Hydel Power Stations, running multiple power plants to generate 4.4 million kilowatts of power for both Ontario and New York.